Prior to the building of the cold storage, various criteria must be specified. These parameters must be precisely calculated in order for the system and units to operate at peak efficiency for many years while avoiding increased energy consumption.
1- Choosing the kind of cold storage
It is critical to understand why cold storage is being used.
- Pre-cooling chamber: Used for pre-cooling items in the 0/+ 8 °C range.
- Cold storage room (cool room): Used for cold storage in the +8/+14 °C range.
- Cold storage chamber: Used for cold storage in the -1/+ 8 °C range.
- Frozen storage chamber: Used to keep frozen items at temperatures ranging from -18/-24 °C.
- Blast freezing chamber: -35/-45 °C utilised for range blast freezing.
2- The items that will be kept
Each warehouse space should only contain one type of merchandise. Different products can be stored together if they are enclosed in packaging and the storage temperatures are compatible.
3- Temperature and relative humidity of product storage
The calculation for designing a refrigerated warehouse is based on the type of products to be stored. Incorrect temperature selection can result in shorter storage and shelf life of the products.
4- Product temperature upon arrival at the warehouse
It is critical to know what temperature the products are delivered to the warehouse at in order to determine their cooling capacity.
5- The daily product entry amount to the warehouse
The number of forklifts, employees, trucks, truck parking area, and so on are determined based on the number of products entering the warehouse.
6- Product packaging types
The stacked kind can be stored depending on the storage type of the items; carton box, package, pallet, chassis.
7- Dimensions of cold storage
The room’s proportions are dictated by the needed capacity, geography, and zoning status.
8- The number of rooms that will be created in the warehouse.
The number of rooms can be calculated based on the product circulation speed and quantity. If the rooms are too large, it takes longer to unload, and if they are too small, the initial investment cost increases.
9- Geographical circumstances of the site where the cold storage will be constructed
Factors like as exterior weather conditions and relative humidity are critical in determining the necessary cooling load for the product to be computed in the warehouse.
10- Type of cold storage construction
Cold storage structures can be composed of reinforced concrete or steel. To reduce heat gain from the floor, walls, and ceiling, the rooms must be insulated.
11- The type of door
One of the determining factors in cold storage doors is heat gain formation and cost. As a result, the appropriate door types must be chosen.
- Sliding door: The door to the frigid rooms. It must be at a height and breadth that allows the forklift to pass through.
- Sectional door: This type of door is used to separate the external area from the processing or loading area.
- The impact door:Used at corridor crossings between the commercial area and the warehouse space.
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